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Pain and pain processing is regulated by a network of nerves generally referred to as pain receptors (Jenny et al., 2002, p. 58). Studies have shown that the central processing of mechanical stimuli and innocuous are greatly altered by spinal manipulation due to increase in pain tolerance and an increase in pain threshold levels.
However, the study also showed a reduction in pain around the lumber skin after spinal manipulation(Santilli et al., 2006, p. 75). When a pin was pricked on patients before and after therapy, a difference in the level; of pain was observed. Pain was more before therapy compared to after therapy. This makes the topic more controversial since as mixture of result are registered abut this effect on pain receptors.