Sociological theories of criminology explain crime causation in terms of the social environment that family, school, community, workplace, peer group, and society. There are three major sociological theories of crime and delinquency which are strain, social learning, and control theories that offer explanation to crime activities and criminals from a sociological perspective. The nature of sociological theorizing tends to focus on the features of the social environment that causes crime and criminals.
The assumptions that underlie sociological perspective on crime causation are varied in relation to giving insight of crime explanation from society’s view. It is a point of worth to note that these assumptions on causative of crime are based on mechanistic conception of causation that is attuned to the nature of social phenomena. In other words, the sociological perspective on crime visualizes causal process as part of a social reality that is constructed by man.
The sociological theories based on these assumptions about man and society: process, social action, power, and conflict. Sociological processes are dynamic aspect of social relations. These resultant relations in social phenomena fluctuate continually in a continuous series of actions, taking place in time. This relations lead to a special kind of result that will have an impact on the individual social construction. Conflicts in society between persons, social units, or cultural elements are unavoidable due to competing interests. Thus, the consequences of social conflicts results to crime activities and criminology behavior formation. Power is the basic characteristic of social organization. Therefore, the conflict conception of society leads us to assume that coherence in society is assured by constraint and coercion. In regard to social action, man’s actions are meaningful and purposive, that man engages in voluntary behaviors.
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