These early centers were an interesting conglomerate of Christianity, Islam, and Jew religious, cultural, political, and economic views. The existence of these rich centers was often destroyed by overzealous leaders who used cultural, political, and religious views to advance their own interests and consequently led to the emergence of religious wars.
During the 1000-1200 periods, there were several religious wars. One of the first was by the Muslim leader Al-Mansur of Cordoba in 997, who led 50 jihads against Christians in Northern Spain. Such Islamic wars were the cause of the rise of the first Christian crusade or holy war. Throughout the 1st and 9th centuries, Christians had been making pilgrim journeys to Jerusalem and other holy sites which were under the control of Muslims. During this period there was relevant peace, but tension existed between the Cluniac reforms and the religious and traditional political interests.
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