February 1990 saw the beginning of the fall of the Soviet Union where communist forces agreed to abandon their monopoly of power. The pro-independence movement organizes a pro-independence rally in presence of President Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990 (Robert, 57). This provoked the call for independence around in Lithuania, which lead to declaration of its independence. Estonia declares illegal the soviet power in 1940 and initiates independence efforts. The Latvian Supreme Court also initiates restoration of independence in 1990.
Nikolai Ryzhkov resigned as the chair of the union council of ministers and replaced by Valentin Pavlov as the prime minister. This however depicted the weakening of the union as most leaders were under pressure to change the system. The 1991 referendum saw 76.4% of voter supporting the stay of the union but with many reforms (Robert, 63). Armenia, Baltic, Chechnya, and Georgia, a set of countries referring itself as Ichkeria boycotted the vote preferring independence. Boris Yeltsin was elected president on June 1991 and came with an agenda aiming at eradicating dictatorship although he never talked of independence of the states (market economy). Hews latter succeeded by Gorbachev’s who was ousted by coup and put under house arrest. He however returned to power after the coup collapsed and its masterminds detained. After his return to power, the citizens leading to strong opposition from different Russian powers again opposed him. This led to the weakening and eventual collapse of the union (Robert, 66).
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