The birth of modern family planning and its impact on the fertility of millions of couples all around the globe has been witnessed by the 20th century. The “one-child policy” emerged as one of the strict family planning programs of the world that got initiated by China in 1979. The one-child policy has been understudied significantly despite its apparent importance. Researchers have been hindered by a lack of comprehensive information and limitations of data. However, it is evident that the society and economy of China have been influenced by the one-child policy in numerous ways. These ways were extended well beyond the rate of fertility.
Researchers found some of the important cons and pros of this Chinese one-child policy. The cons of this one-child policy are it is linked with numerous of issues like dissatisfaction of individuals towards the government, increased crime, and un-balanced sex ratio. Moreover, the short-term impacts of were focused mainly on current economic studies, while the lagged or long-term impacts were understudied substantially. Thereby statements related to suggestions and consequences for designs of the one-child policy are still absent. Lastly, no valid evidence has been found whether human capital gathered through the conventional trade-off or quality-quantity channel has been contributed by one-child policy.
On the other hand, the pros of this one-child policy involved some unintended outcomes including higher reported rates of Han-minority marriages and twin births. Moreover, attempts of having additional children were made by the households without breaking the law under this one-child policy. In addition, population growth was curbed significantly by the one-child policy, although there was no consensus related to the magnitude. Along with this, for local leaders promotion incentives were linked with restrictions of implementation of policy. Natural variation were exploited by researchers, due to huge variation in how the policy was implemented across ethnicities and regions.