Machine bureaucracy is characterised by a highly specialized routine operating tasks, a proliferation of rules and regulations for formalized communication throughout the organization, relatively centralized power for decision-making, an elaborate administrative structure with sharp distinctions between line and staff, reliance on the functional basis for grouping tasks and formalized procedures in the operating core. Therefore, it can be said that machine bureaucracy highly depend on the standardization of its operating work processes for coordination. The simple bureaucratic structured system is based on direct supervision and the strategic apex. Additionally, power for important decisions is centralized in the hands of the chief executive officer or senior staff. Therefore it is characterised by a small managerial hierarchy that lacks a techno-structure, a loose division of labour, few support staffers, and minimal differentiation among its units. As a result, the structure minimally uses liaison devices, planning and training.
The adhocracy structure has little formalization of behaviour and high job specialization that is based on formal training. There is a key role for the support structure, sometimes together with the operating core and forms of team collaboration to perform vital tasks are evident to this system. The stricture of the Divisionalized is closely related to the machine bureaucracy, but varies in the aspect of its emphasis on the standardization of output and middle line as a key role.
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