Women’s labor force participation rates have also been increasing greatly in the past four decades. For instance, in 1970, 43% of women participated in the paid labor force. This figure increased to 52%in 1980, 58% in 1990 and 60% in 2000.This figure is estimated to rise to 68% this year. A major cause for this rise has been the fact that women no longer drop off when they get married, a traditional requirement based on the family structure.
Cultural differences such as religion are increasingly affecting North American workplaces. In 2001, the United States Population was about 0.5% Muslim, 1.4% Jewish, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.4% Hindu and 0.03% Sikh. Although these percentages appear small, they are growing and the American courts are increasingly recognizing the rights of religious minorities in the workplace.
Surface level differences, achieved human capital and deep level diversity are all subsets of workplace diversity. A surface level difference is associated with the immediate impressions which stimulate stereotypical perception and expectations. Achieved human capital on the other hand has effects on people’s organizational experiences as most of them assign people tasks and jobs on the basis of demonstrated qualification and aptitude. This is because people prefer to be judge on such qualifications rather than surface level demographics. Deep level diversity qualifies the notion of values, beliefs, behavioral and cognitive styles, and cultures. These factors however take time to manifest yet they have the greatest impact on workplace relations (Robinson, 2006, pp.215-218).
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