Vygotsky’s theory was developed in the Soviet Union at a time when psychologists were basing their theories on a stimulus-response setup, and Vygotsky’s objection to these was that they based all the conscious responses of an individual on subconscious processes which he did not agree with. According to Kozulin when he quoted Vygotsky, Kozulin (1986)
“According to Vygotsky, human higher mental functions must be viewed as products of mediated activity. The role of the mediator is played by psychological tools and means of interpersonal communication.” (p. xxiii-xxiv)
The theory stipulates that any sort of human activity is not merely a stimulus-response scenario; in fact, it postulates that there is no one actor in an action. The motivated action instead is a result of a variety of factors such as the team, organization, the culture, perspective and context of the situation, and so forth.
The activity theory considers that an action, directed towards a goal produces an object to reach that goal. This object can be the experiences that develop as a result of that activity or the physical products or learning that streams out. In order to reach that goal, society, language, culture, norms, and various ‘artifacts’ intervene in the motivated action. (Activity Theory, 2008)
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