Children are believed to have spontaneous habits. Consider the following example: a child can begin smiling by herself without any cause. S/he can just smile while in the cot as she suckles on her fingers. But then, her elder brother may pick her up and in turn start swinging her such that the child smiles even more. In the former case, the child’s smile was an accidental response, but in the latter case, the smile is a deliberate response since there is an aspect of reinforcement from the elder brother to the child. This example best explains the instrumental conditioning.
Bandura believes that individuals manifest the behavior of others after which they absorb this learned behavior to become their own. Ethologically, it is believed that experiences at given times in a person’s life has a big impact on an individual’s development. For instance, one might undergo an experience of hard life, fro instance, hard survival due to divorced parents may cause an adult develop a hard attitude towards life.
It can be seen from Maslow’s Theory that the highest development is when an individual acquires self-actualization. In this context a developing adult acquires spiritual fulfillment, self-esteem, and self-acceptance. S/he is able to accommodate others, love and even get involved in innovative activities. S/he will be productive, realistic, autonomous, spontaneous and playful, engage in profound relationships, develop concern for the entire human family, and importantly, s/he internalizes morality and stops being a conformist.
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