Greenspan then develops a comprehensive model that fuses the developmental process and substance abuse in an effort to understand how each affects the other (Priestly, et al., 1998). In his study, he explores the different patterns of substance abuse and resultant addictions.
He further argues that in order for the treatment to yield satisfactory results, it is important to understand the patterns and internalize the relationship between the inner and outer self of the addict and how the same contribute to the state of addiction. According to him, this is essential due to the fact that in most instances addicts pretend and they may quit treatment before their internal problems are fully addressed.
Bernard Brickman argues that the traditional approaches to psychoanalysis did not effectively affect addictions. He supported this presumption using different studies and researches. He challenged the basic psychoanalysis assumptions with regard to psychoanalytic pathology (Lende & Smith, 2002). It is in this consideration that he proposed a holistic approach that is supported by various studies undertaken in other related disciplines like genetics and physiology amongst others. In general, he recommended that abstinence should be the first intervention and should be taken during the early stages of addiction. According to him, this is a requirement for satisfactory analytic therapy. Additionally, he emphasizes that mutual help groups like alcohol anonymous play a critical role in the recovery of addicts.