He did this through the study of human life and the major principles that governed the people at that time. This was in essence the fundamental criterion for his study, as it guided him through a logical method as to how people should be governed in order to maximize their abilities for any state.
Although, through personal reasoning he does have an inclination to accept that the old way of living in the throes of virtue is an idea that should be followed, he however, thinks that such an idea cannot succeed in the modern times, and it will not necessarily lead to true happiness as it was guaranteed.
Therefore, according toMachiavelli’s work it can be seen that the ruler of the state has to in fact adopt practices that might not be acceptable on a humanitarian note, for the single and brilliant reason that this is required for the state and regime to continue in the most beneficial of manners. This not only shows Machiavelli as a harsh ruler, whose basis was on trying to control the population by the mere puppeteer-ing of the popular and existent notions of morality and values that exist at a given time in any society. This in a way also spawns the idea of helping towards the creation of a dominating aristocracy, which was something that was decidedly abhorrent to other major political and philosophical thinkers of that time.
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