As Gregson et al., (2007) puts it, the challenging times for biomedical trials in regard to HIV interventions began to appear by the late 1990s.
At this period the investigators had already come up with a number of biomedical HIV prevention interventions such as vaginal microbicides, Phase 2 and phase 3 trials, suppression of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) (Des Jarlais, Marmor and Friedmann, 2000), male circumcision, cervical barriers through the use of the latex diaphragm and the currently ongoing or already completed. However, unlike other infections such as diabetes and cancer, HIV trials are hampered with a number of aspects that decreases its credibility, validity and ability to be applied effectively. These issues are discussed below.
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